律政江湖 发表于 2016-4-12 17:05

商务租赁合同案例解析-1

律政江湖(魁北克Paralegal/Parajuristes协会会员(可代理移民申请上诉案例),英/法流利,仗着IQ和良心行走江湖,但也绝不当滥好人!seekingjustice098@gmail.com)
律政江湖接触的案例中,由商务租赁合同引发的纠纷占了很大比例。见过专业人士走流程但不走心的合同给客户造成高达将近一百万的后续诉讼官司,缠讼数年,律所换了几家,还是一笔血泪账!律政江湖以法院判例为依据,以解牛庖丁为鼻祖,帮助大家领略魁北克法中精髓。
律政江湖已经说过N多次了,商务租赁合同与民用租赁合同几乎是井水和河水的两个概念。后者的法理依据以《魁北克民法》中的相关章节为主;而商务租赁合同,就基本上以双方你情我愿签下的合同文字为准,愿打认罚、没有后悔药可吃是基本原则,除非合同有严重偏失,即便如此,通常合同也会声明:如果部分条款被废止,合同其他部分仍然具有法律效力。所以,因为各种理由急着淌浑水的各位,您真的想清楚、看明白了么?
案例:魁省小额法庭2010年Disessav. Damar
原告为房东。房客与原房东的合同期内,房东通过地产买卖合同接手了。现房东在合同期结束后控告原房客,要求其支付“附加租金”(additionalrent)。附加租金是相对“基本租金”(basicrent)而言的。
借用判决书的法官用语: “ It is often the case that commercial leases provide for a basic rent that isfixed and an additional rent that fluctuates in accordance with various chargesassociated with the operation of the building that are passed onto the tenantsproportional to the floor space of each lease. ”商务租赁合同的常见做法是固定一个基本租金,然后再附加一个根据整个物业的运营状况,按照占地面积分摊到各租户的浮动开销,称为附加租金。
本案合同中关于基本租金的文字是这样的:“The basic rent does not includeany other expenses incurred by the tenant for the premises, example:electricity, heating, insurance.Thetenant is solely responsible for any expense that may occur for the operationof the business”基本租金不包括房客租用场地的消耗,比如:用电、供暖和保险。房客全权自负所有因商业经营造成的开销 (翻译文字精准、敢把原文亮出来的没有几个吧?呵呵~~~)。
2008年1月,房东在其会计的怂恿之下( at the recommendation of theiraccountant真没瞎用词,不信往后瞧),房东给房客给房客开了一个账单,包括保险费,保养维护费,杂七杂八还加了税,一共$6,580.76。
判决书一般都会讲本案仲裁的焦点是什么。本案诉讼焦点为:“The question the Court mustdecide is whether the agreement between the initial landlord and the Defendant,which agreement was assigned to the Plaintiffs at the time of sale, includes aresponsibility for additional rent for such matters as the landlord's insuranceand landlord's municipal taxes and school taxes.”房客与原房东是否已经达成了有关附加租金(包括房东的保险、市税和校税承担)协议,该协议在地产买卖时是否过渡给了新房东。这里的agreement其实指的是合同文字之外的约定俗成,即:我这么做了,你也没有质疑,所以就算我们约(定)了哈!
本案的一个法理精髓是:合同文字不是孤立的,前后是有映照关联的,中间隔着多少页的文字都有可能。一旦关联成立,就是一个新的证据论点。这个律政江湖有实战经验。一个餐馆濒临破产,可租赁合同还有溜溜的3年呢,意味着房东要损失3年的房租收入。而合同本身存在重大缺陷,没有抵押担保条款,所以,房东去找了律师,可得到的答复是:那就只能跟着对方的破产程序走,没辙!律政江湖把相关合同通读的结果是从首尾两处找到了关联条款,构成了担保的意涵,从而牵制了另一份相关合同的执行,房东成功挽回将近5位数字的损失!
本案中,法官对合同文字有这样的解读: the expression: “The basic rent does not include any otherexpenses incurred by the tenant for the premises, example: electricity,heating, insurance.The tenant is solelyresponsible for any expense that may occur for the operation of the business”
must beread together with the specific insurance clause that reads as follows:"Thetenant shall not do or permit anything to be done in or upon the leasedpremises, nor to bring or keep anything therein which will in any way increasethe rate of fire insurance on the building or on the property or goods therein,in which case the tenant shall pay the complete increased portion of premiumsupon the building as may be required by the insurance companies as a result ofthe business or trade carried on in the leased premises within two days ofnotice thereof from the Landlord."
也就是说:关于基本租金的第一段文字(前面已经翻译过)必须与第二段文字放在一起诠释。第二段文字的大意是,如果房客的经营行为导致租赁场地保险金额增加,房客要承担相应的份额。法官还特别补充了:reading these two clausestogether, it is clear that, except where the landlord can demonstrate thatthere is an increase in insurance premiums required as a result of the businesscarried out by the tenant, the landlord assumes its own insurance costs.把上下两段文字一起看,很明显,除非房东可以证明物业的保险金额上涨是由房客的商业经营造成的,否则,房东自己要承担保险成本开销。
关于缴税的部分是另一个法理精髓:In terms of taxes, while theconduct of the parties makes it clear that, with the change of the taxationsystem, the tenant agreed to assume his portion of the business taxes assessedto the landlord, the evidence is equally clear that no claim was made either bythe previous landlord nor by the Plaintiffs for a proportional share of theordinary property and school taxes assessed to the owner. 虽然双方都确认:一旦涉及税务系统变更,房客同意分摊房东的营业税部分。可是证据也相当清楚地表明:无论前任房东还是现任房东,之前都没有向房客提过出分摊房东物业资产和校税的要求。重点来了:What's more, the conduct of theparties clearly establishes that there was no such intention. 双方的合同行为表明:这种意图不曾存在。也就是江湖语言:我这么做了,你也没有质疑,所以就算我们约(定)了哈!
最后,法官惊堂木下:the Court comes to the conclusionthat the Defendant no owes no further amounts. (在合同期结束时,被告已完成所有合同义务)法庭认定被告不承担任何其它债务。

a117 发表于 2016-4-28 20:12

不知道你还做不做了,给你发了邮件,没有回应。
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